Searching for Descendants of Frederich Ernigh
By Fred Coffey
I descend from a Jacob ARNEY, whom we know lived in York County, PA, and who later moved to North Carolina, where he died in Lincoln County in about 1784. For a long time this Jacob was believed to be descended from one Frederich ERNIGH, who arrived in Pennsylvania in 1732. This is because Frederich indicated one of his sons was named Jacob in his will, when he died in 1771 in Colebrooksdale, Berks County, PA.
But we now KNOW that the "Jacob:BerksCounty" named in this will is an entirely different person from the "Jacob:YorkCounty" who is our ancestor. And I will cite the evidence in this report.
We still suspect the "two Jacobs" may be related, we just don't know how. And one way to confirm they are related might be via a y-DNA test on men who descend from each of the two Jacobs – a match would prove there was a connection. There's a discussion at the end of this report on the subject of DNA Testing.
And we do have y-DNA tests on two Arney men descending from "Jacob:YorkCounty", and they match each other on 36 out of 37 y-DNA markers. One descends from this Jacob's son Johann Heinrich, and the other descends from his son Peter. Genealogy and genetics combine to leave no doubt of their relationship.
So now we would like to find another male Arney or Erney who clearly descends from the 1732 immigrant Frederich ERNIGH. A match would prove there is a relationship, although it would not prove exactly how or when.
So the objective of this paper is to start with Frederich, and see if we can find our way to some of HIS LIVING DESCENDANTS – and then persuade one or more of them to take a DNA test.
I will be examining the details of what we know, or think we know, about Frederich's family. And in passing, we will flag the details that suggest the Jacob from Frederich's will is not the same as Jacob our ancestor. However full details on "Jacob our ancestor" are covered in a separate report. Those curious can read about OUR Jacob (York County) and his son at:
Note that I am just beginning this quest for information, and I suspect others have seen evidence of which I have no knowledge. Specifically, I will cite information provided by Stan Arney, Tom Rider, and Cherie Ohisson, but I don't know that they have shared all they know. I invite corrections to anything I write below:
There are too many similar names to track, without something to show their possible relationships. I offer the following, and the notes that follow will try to make it clear which one is under discussion. Will be using the name "Arney", although historical records may offer different spellings:
1 Frederich ERNIGH & Anna Maria UNKNOWN
1.2 Margaret, wife of Barnhard Zweitzich
1.3 Jacob Arney (aft 1732 – abt 1776) & Anna Barbara Linzenbigler
1.3.1 Johannes Erney (6 May 1766)
184.108.40.206 Unknown son?
220.127.116.11 Elisabeth (1795)
18.104.22.168 Maria (1796)
22.214.171.124 Catharina (1799 - 1801)
126.96.36.199 Salome (1801)
188.8.131.52 Johannes (1803)
184.108.40.206 Hannah (1805)
220.127.116.11 David (1807-1874)
18.104.22.168 Jonas (1809)
22.214.171.124 Sophia (1811)
126.96.36.199 Jonathan (1812)
188.8.131.52 Solomon (1814)
1.3.2 Jacob Arney (10 Dec 1767 – 24 Mar 1775)
1.3.3 Conrad Erne (1770)
1.3.4 Henrich Erne (1772)
1.3.5 Daniel Arney (23 May 1774 – 22 Nov 1858) & Susanna Wisler
184.108.40.206 Daniel Arney Jr. (abt 1801)
220.127.116.11 John Arney (abt 1807) & Jane Cline?
18.104.22.168.1 John Henry Arney (Jan 1840) & Rose Ann Cowden
1.3.6 Frederick Arney (2 Aug 1776)
1.4 John Arney
1.4.1 John Arney (son of John? Or Jacob? Or Michael?)
1.5 Elizabeth, wife of Abraham Dungelbarger
1.6 Michael Arney
1.6.1 Frederick Arney
Ms. "Edna Williams" did much of the early research on the ARNEY family. Edna published a quarterly newsletter "We are the Arney's". This was published over the years 1994 to early 2002.
Unfortunately, and much to my regret, I have not yet been able to find a copy of these publications. I can only find secondary sources that are quoting or abstracting from Edna's work. Here's one:
"According to "We Are The Arney's" volume 1, issue 1 - 1994, There are records of Frederich Ernigh and family coming to PA on board the "Pennsylvania Merchant" on Sept 11, 1732. The ship left Rotterdam, Holland with a stop in Plymouth, England. The record does not say where the Ernigh's boarded the ship. Frederich and wife Anna Maria had two children with them, but there seems to be no record of them once they arrived. It is possible that their names were altered to save confusion in the new world. The name seems to have evolved Ernigh / Earney /Erni / Arni / Arney."
Passenger List: 1732 Arrival
I did find the "List of Passengers Imported in the Ship Pennsylvania, John Stedman, Master, from Rotterdam, Last From Plymouth. Qualified Sept. 11, 1732." This was in an 1892 book recently digitized by Google from a copy found in a Harvard library. (IF interested, the easiest way for you to find it is to Google the name "Frederich Ernigh" (in quotes) and look for a Google Books reference. Then see pages 45-47.)
This list shows adult male passenger "Frederich Ernigh" on page 46. And on page 47, under "Women and Children" it shows "Frederich Ernich, Maria Ernich, and Anna Ernich".
Speculation: Alternative Interpretations?
Edna Williams must have concluded that the child "Frederich Ernich" was the son of adult "Frederich Ernigh", and then observed that she could find "no record" of the child Frederich thereafter.
Anyway, we clearly have TWO "Frederick Arney" like names arriving in Pennsylvania together. One, probably the elder, settled in Berks County and had a son named Jacob who also settled in Berks County. Could the other be involved with the Arneys found in York County? This and other theories are discussed in APPENDIX I: "Explaining the York County Arneys".
LOCATIONS: The following talk about Colebrookdale, Hereford, New Hanover, and Douglass. These are townships, and they straddle the border between modern day Burks and Montgomery counties in Pennsylvania. And prior to 1784 what is now Montgomery County was part of Philadelphia County. But these townships are all within a few miles of each other. Example: If you go from the city of Boyertown (Colebrookdale Twp) to the New Hanover Lutheran Church (New Hanover Twp), you will pass through the village of Gilbertsville (Douglass Twp) – and you will travel a total distance of only 4 miles!
There will also be reference to one family that appeared to live in Hereford Township, but had their children baptized in the New Hanover Lutheran Church. That's about 13 miles. Might be a stretch for every Sunday, but OK for a special baptism in the family church?
1 Frederich ERNIGH & Anna Maria:
More on Life of Frederich:
Stan Arney reports there was a Land Patent dated 13 Apr 1737 in Douglas Township, giving 100 acres to Frederick Ernie. Also that this land was sold to Michael Ernie on 20 Apr 1774.
I found a few tax records for Colebrook Dale Twp., Berks Co., PA: In 1759 Frederick Earney paid 8 pounds tax. In 1767 he was taxed on 120 acres, 2 horses, and 4 cattle. In 1768 he was taxed on 100 acres, 2 horses, and 2 cattle.
Frederick Earney's Will:
Source: "Abstracts of Berks County Pennsylvania Wills, 1752-1785", by Jacob Martin and John P Smith:
Found at Colebrookdale, Feb 21 1771 – Mar 21 1771.
To wife Anna Maria, all estate during life, and after her decease to my youngest son Michael, paying legacies as follows:
To my eldest dau Margaret, wife of Barnhard Zweitzich £15.7.6
To oldest son Jacob £60.
To second son John £50.
To second dau Elizabeth wife of Abraham Dungelbarger £30
Exr: friend Mathias Roath
Wit: Adam Roth, James Richards
(Translated from German)
1.3 Jacob Arney (son of Frederich):
Now, let's take the first named son in the above will, and see if we can track him. I have no original research, but I will quote tax and marriage records provided by Tom Rider, Stan Arney, and Cherie Ohlsson:
1759: "Jacob Erny Single" is found on the tax records for Colebrookdale Township, PA. (I believe the common minimum age for owning land is "21", so this may suggest that Jacob was born before 1738?)
1764: Marriage of Jacob Erne to Anna Barbara Linsenbigler on 5 Jun 1764. (Note 1) (Note: That is much too late for THIS Jacob to be OUR ancestor Jacob, who had children by 1750 (including my ancestor in 1755). Thus this cannot be our ancestor!)
1765: Jacob & Barbara Erne sponsor baptism of Anna Barbara Herble, 28 Jul 1765. (Note 1)
1766: Son Johannes Erny born 6 May 1766. (Note 1)
1767: Son Jacob Erne born 10 Dec 1767. (Birth not found, but his death was reported for 24 Mar 1775, age 7 years, 3 months, 2 weeks) (Note 1)
1769: "Jacob Arney 100 Acres" - tax records for Colebrookdale Township, PA.
1770: Son Conrad Erne born (Birth record not found, but he was confirmed 17 May 1787 at age 17.) (Note 1)
1772: Son Henrich Erne born (Birth record not found, but he was confirmed 17 May 1787 at age 15.) (Note 1)
1774: "Jacob Arney 100 Acres" - tax records for Douglas Township (next to Colebrookdale), PA. (Note: OUR ancestor Jacob had a son Peter born in North Carolina in 1772. So, this is further evidence that the Jacob in Burks County is NOT our Jacob!)
1774: Son Daniel Erne born 23 May 1774, and was baptized 4 September 1774. Daniel's godparents were Daniel and Elizabeth Linsenbiegler. (Note 1)
1776: Son Fredrick Erne born 2 August 1776, son of widow Erne, was baptized October 1776. (No specific baptism date, just "October". Also no godparents are listed.)
This son's birth shows that Jacob was alive in late 1775, and died before August 1776. Stan advises his name is not recorded in the church death records, nor is his burial location known.
1779: "Barbra Earney Widow" - tax records for Douglas Township.
1780: "Widow Earney" - tax records for Douglas Township.
1783: "Widow Earney 140 Acres" - tax records for Douglas Township.
1784: Stan Arney advises that Anna Barbara Linsenbigler Erne married Adam Luckart on 9 Nov 1784 from Falkner Swamp Reformed Church (Montgomery County), PA.
1791: Stan Arney reports that Friedrich Erne, age 15, was confirmed in the Lutheran faith 22 April 1791 in New Hanover Lutheran Church, son of Adam Luckhard, on Easter Sunday, with 1st communion on 24 Apr 1791, Rev. Weinland. Friedrich was confirmed the same day as his brother, Daniel Erne, age 17. (NOTE: Adam Luckhard would be Frederick and Daniel's step-father.) (Note 1)
Stan Arney reports that Daniel, Frederick, and Adam Luckhard all ended up in Fairfield County, OH. (NOTE: Confirmed by census: 1820 census for Fairfield County shows Frederick Arney in Liberty Township, and Daniel Arny in Hocking Township. "Adam Lock Hart" is on the same page as Daniel.)
So the evidence shows that this Jacob Arney was married in 1759, and died before August 1776. And he appears to have had six sons. We'll try to trace the sons next. And he is absolutely NOT the same man as "our" Jacob Arney, who survived until 1784 and died in Lincoln County, NC.
1.3.1 John (Johannes) Erney: (Frederich, Jacob):
Note: Using spelling "Erney", as adopted my most of his descendants.
1766: Johannes Erny born 6 May 1766 (see above), the son of Jacob and Anna Barbara Erny.
1795: Daughter Elisabeth Erny born 22 Apr 1795, parents Johannes & Elisabeth Erny. (Note 1) (Claim is that Johannes' wife "Elisabeth" was Elisabeth Gilbert, born 23 Sep 1771, father Hans Henry Gilbert from Germany. (Note 2). )
1796: Daughter Maria Erne born 24 Sep 1796. (Note 1)
1799: Daughter Catharina Erne born 4 Jun 1799. (Note 1)
1800: Census, Berks County, Hereford Twp: A John Erny found, he is age 26-44, his wife is age 26-44, and they have one male child 10-15 and three females <10. Don't know the name of the male child, but the adult ages and the three female children fit perfectly. Although it in the same county, Hereford Twp. is about 13 miles from the church in New Hanover.
1801: Daughter Salome Erne born 7 Jul 1801. (Note 1)
1803: Son Johannes Erne born 5 Apr 1803. (Note 1)
1805: Daughter Hannah born 25 April (Note 1) in 1805 (Note 2)
1807: Son David born 2 Feb 1807. (Not named in (Note 1), but identified in (Note 2).
1809: Son Jonas born 25 Feb 1809. (Not named in (Note 1), but identified in (Note 2). Note also that brother Solomon (1814) lived near this Jonas in 1850, and named one of his sons "Jonas", so the name has some connection to other family.)
1810: Census, Berks County, Hereford Twp, PA: John Erney is found. He is age 45+, his wife is age 26-44. They have 2 males <10, 1 male 16-25, 1 female <10, and 1 female 10-15.
1811: Daughter Sophia Erny born 8 May 1811. (Note 1)
1812: Son Jonathan Erny born 3 Feb 1812. (Note 1)
1814: Son Solomon Erny born 1 Apr 1814. (Note 1)
1820: Census, Lehigh County, Upper Milford Twp, PA: Found John Erny. Born before 1775. Ages and children are generally consistent with 1810 census. (They have one new boy, and one new girl, both under age 10).
Lehigh County is adjacent to Berks County, and I have no doubt this is the SAME John Arney.
1830: Census, Lehigh County, Upper Milford Twp., PA: Found John Earney, age 60-70. The kids are much older, and one or two of the household people are probably spouses. There is a female age 5-10 who is probably a granddaughter.
1840: Census, Lehigh County, Upper Milford, PA: Found John Arney, age 70-80. There are 6 others in the household, ages consistent with his children, their spouses, and his grandchildren.
1850: Census, Lehigh County, Upper Milford, PA: John is gone. But there are 10 people named with the Earney spelling, one with Erney, and 8 with Eahrney. These 19 people are in three families, consisting of 8 in family headed by John's son Solomon, 6 in family headed by his son David, 4 in family headed by his son Jonas. And there is a "Jacob Erney" age 14 living with another family – with a name "Jacob" he has to belong to the right family group. So ALL these families descend from John!
1860: Census, Lehigh County, Lower Milford, PA: There are now 21 named people, using the Erney spelling. And from this year on they remain consistent – "Erney" is now the apparent official spelling for this family!
1930: Census, Lehigh County, PA: There are 67 Erney people in the county, but not a single "Arney" or "Earney". They're now found in several of the Lehigh County Townships. (Note: In 1930 the whole state of Pennsylvania has 230 "Erney", but only 25 "Earney" and 76 "Arney".)
The genealogists: Now, with all these names to work with, it's easy to find quite a lot of family trees that draw them together. And they all seem to believe they descend from a Johannes Erney, born about 1765 in Pennsylvania. That's our man!
Most think he was born about 1765, consistent with our "John" above. Most say he was born in PA, but don't know what county. However a few think he was from Somerset County (and I disagree!). Most think his wife was Elisabeth Gilbert, born about 1771, daughter of John Henry Gilbert, who died in Montgomery County (that's next to Berks and Lehigh).
So, could I find a living "Erney" in Lehigh County, to approach for DNA? Well, the "White Pages" directory can give me addresses for 36 "Erneys" in Bethlehem, and 30 in Allentown. (There are no "Earneys" or "Arneys".) First try was a bulk mailing. Result: I wrote 18 letters to MEN named "Erney" in Allentown and Bethlehem, PA. I only got one response, and that one was not willing to follow through.
But a subsequent ancestry.com search revealed one of the sons in the 1850 census to be well documented, with living descendants:
22.214.171.124 David Erney: (Frederich, Jacob, Johannes):
I found the following genealogy for David:
Exchanged notes with the owner - she reports she has a living half-brother named Erney, and I have asked for help in determining his interest in a y-DNA test. The descent is as follows, with Lehigh County roots:
David Erney (1807-1874)
Levi Schaffer Erney (1852-1940)
Wallace Ebert Erney (1882-1947)
William Gordon Erney (1916-2004)
Will not presently pursue other descendants of Johannes Erney (1766), unless this one doesn't pan out.
1.3.5 Daniel Arney (Frederich, Jacob):
NOTE: Have chosen not to pursue the other sons of Jacob at present, since this fifth child "Daniel" leads to promising results:
Stan Arney reports that Jacob's son Daniel, born 1774, married Susanna Wisler in 1796 in Perkiomen Twp., Montgomery Co., PA. He says Daniel and Susanna moved to Fairfield County, OH in 1800.
There is indeed a Daniel Arney in Hocking Twp., Fairfield Co., in the census for 1820, 1830 and 1840. There is also a "John", of right age to be Daniel's son in 1830, living next door to Daniel. And there is a "Daniel Jr." in the 1840 census living next to "Daniel Sr.". Both John and Daniel Jr. have sons.
There is a Daniel Arney (indexed as "Daud Arnes") in the 1850 census, of exactly the right age (75). He has what must be a second wife Margaret (age 50), and three daughters.
Daniel Arney's grave marker, and additional information, can be found at the following:
126.96.36.199 Daniel Arney Jr. (Frederich, Jacob, Daniel Sr.):
(So far, haven't found "Daniel Jr." after the 1840 census. Anybody got ideas?)
188.8.131.52 John Arney (Frederich, Jacob, Daniel Sr.):
John Arney, born about 1807, and his wife Jane are found in the 1850 and 1860 census for Fairfield Co., OH, with numerous children. And the ages are consistent with the John Arney living next door to Daniel Sr. in 1830. I'm really convinced he is the son of Daniel. And there are several genealogies out there that trace his descendants.
However, while most of these genealogies do not claim to know John's parents, there are a few of these genealogies that claim this John (and they give him a middle name "Henry") is a son of John Henry Arney born 1781 in Surry County, NC, and the grandson of the Henry Arney (1755) who married Maria Magdalena Fulk. And this is a family I know well, since I descend from Jacob Arney, another son of Henry Arney and Magdalena Fulk.
However I am of the strong opinion that this was just a place to insert John, because they had no other knowledge of what to do with him. He just doesn't fit – for example when they list the children of his presumed father John Henry, they show all the children being born in NC except this John (whom census proves was born in Ohio). This would require his parents to bear children in NC, then move to Ohio for the birth of John, then return to NC for the last few children!
So I am convinced that John Arney of Fairfield County does descend from the line of interest, and NOT from my own "York County PA" line.
The Fairfield County Genealogy web page identified David M Friscia as a contact for "Arney" names. And it turns out that David descends from this John, and that he knows some living Arneys from this family. He is presently seeking to determine if any of them would be willing to do a y-DNA test.
1.3.6 Frederick Arney (Frederich, Jacob):
See notes above. Frederick Arney moved to Fairfield County, OH, where he is found in the 1820 census. He has two sons, and 3 daughters. (There are TWO males age 26 thru 44, maybe Frederick and an older son?)
I think this may be the Frederick Arney found in the 1840 and 1850 census for Seneca County, OH. In 1850 his age suggests a birth year of 1776, and his household seems to contain a son Jacob (32) and a grandson Frederick (2).
Can anybody confirm this is the right connection, and can anybody find a LIVING male Arney from this family?
1.4 JOHN ARNEY (Son of Frederich Ernigh):
Now back to Frederich, for a look to the second child named in the will:
1768: "John Earney 100 acres" – tax records for Colebrookdale Township, Berks County, PA. (Assuming "21" is minimum age to own land, John was born no later than 1747.)
1774: "John Earney 100 acres" – tax records for Colebrookdale Township, Berks County, PA. (Assuming minimum age of 21, this places his birth as before 1753.)
1779: "John Earney" – tax records for Colebrookdale Township, Berks County, PA.
1780: "John Earney" – tax records for Colebrookdale Township, Berks County, PA.
1781: "John Earney 40 acres" – tax records for Colebrookdale Township, Berks County, PA.
1790: (John should have been in the census for this year, but I can't find him. I suspect he died before 1790, and I have no knowledge whether he had any children. The trail is lost.)
1.6 MICHAEL ARNEY (Son of Frederich Ernigh):
OK, now lets back up and see if we can track the "Michael Arney" named in Frederick's will.
1771: Frederick's will implies Michael is young enough to still be under the care of his mother, Anna Maria. Assuming maturity is at age 21 (need to check?), he must have been born later than 1750?
1774: Stan Arney reports that some land originally patented to Frederich Arney was sold to Michael on 20 Apr 1774. This would be part of the estate given to Frederich's wife Anna Maria, for her use during her life? In any event, it suggests that Michael was age 21 (?) in or before 1774, suggesting birth about 1753?
1779: "Michael Erney 90 Acres" – tax records for Colebrookdale Township, Berks County, PA.
1780: "Michael Earney 93 Acres" – tax records for Colebrookdale Township, Berks County, PA.
1781: "Michael Earney 93 Acres" – tax records for Colebrookdale Township, Berks County, PA.
1784: "Michael Earney 91 Acres" – tax records for Colebrookdale Township, Berks County, PA.
1785: "Michael Earney" – tax records for Colebrookdale Township, Berks County, PA.
1790: Census, Berks County, Colebrookdale Twp., PA: Michl Earny is there, with 2 males over age 16, and 6 females.
1800: Census, Northumberland County, Augusta Twp., PA: Michael Arney is there. He is age 45+ (born in or before 1755, which is consistent with his land acquisition in 1774). Wife also age 45+. They have 1 son 10-15, and 2 sons 16-25, and 6 daughters.
(This connection between 1790 and 1800 is a small stretch, given the location switch from Berks to Northumberland. However Northumberland is only two counties over from Berks. There are no other Michael's in PA, and the ages of everybody is consistent. And in the next census (see below) a "Frederick Arny" will appear as a neighbor - consistent with a son of Michael, named after his grandfather, coming of age and starting a family. I really think this is the right "Michael"!)
1810: Census, Northumberland County, Augusta Twp., PA: Michael Arny is still there, with his wife. Household also includes 1 male age 26-44, and one young female 10-15.
1.6.1 FREDERICK ARNEY (son of 1.6 Michael Arney):
But now we find a new man "Frederick Arny" in the same 1810 census, in the same county and township. I'm comfortable that this has to be a son of Michael, coming of age and starting a family.
1810: Census, Northumberland County, August Twp., PA: Frederick Arny is there. He is in the 26-44 age group, suggesting birth 1766-1784. His wife is in the same age group. They have 1 male and 2 female children, all under age 10.
DOWN A DEAD END?
There's one more "Frederick Arney" in Pennsylvania, but I can't confirm there's a connection to the one found in 1810:
1820: Census, Huntingdon County, Franklin Twp., PA: A Frederick Erney is there. He and his wife are in the 26-45 age group – IF this is the right family, and if we combine this with the info from the 1810 census, we know they were born about 1775-1784. If it's the same family, the 1 male child from 1810 is now in the 10-16 group, and there are 2 new males under age 10. They have one female 26-45, and one under age 10. The two females from 1810 could have married young, or be working in another household?
(This Huntingdon is some distance away from Northumberland, and the children and ages don't exactly fit. And I can't find further descendants in PA. I'll put this aside for possible later consideration.)
Note 1: These entries extracted by Stan Arney from "Pennsylvania German Church Records of Births, Baptism, Marriages, Burials, etc." from the Pennsylvania German Society Proceedings and Addresses Volume II, Baltimore Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. 1983. (Found a copy online, and all the cited records are for "The Lutheran Church in New Hanover".)
Note 2: The following genealogy shows a large percentage of the names and dates from Note 1. But it adds dates for child Hannah, and adds another child David. Seems very well researched.
Explaining the York County Arney origins?
Several of us descend from a Jacob Arney, first found in York County, PA, circa 1760. We believe this Jacob was producing children at least by 1750, and his wife was Anna Ursula Kron, daughter of Lorenz Kron who settled in York County in 1741. To produce children by 1749 or 1750, and assuming he was unlikely to marry before about age 18, Jacob was likely to have been born no later than about 1732?
We also know there was a Daniel Erny also in York County in 1797, dealing with the estate of his deceased wife, and witnessing the baptism of Sarah Erny, daughter of Henrich Erny – most likely Sarah was Daniel's granddaughter. If we assume 18-30 years between generations, Henrich might have been born 1767-79, and Daniel born 1733-1761.
We would like to explain away both Jacob and Daniel. Here are some possibilities – comments and new ideas welcome:
THEORY (1): Jacob and Daniel are brothers, and both are sons of the child "Frederich Ernich" who came to America in 1732 on the ship with head of family Frederich Ernigh. For this theory, their presumed father Frederich Jr. must have died fairly young, and we have never been able to find any records of him. THEORY FLAWS: Have a lot of trouble with the timeline, with regards to Jacob. The child "Frederich Ernich" arrived on the ship in 1732, and he would have had to get married and sire the son Jacob quickly enough for Jacob to have his own children by no later than 1750. Think this theory is highly unlikely?
THEORY (2): Daniel is in fact Jacob's son and not his brother – born perhaps in the late 1740's – and left behind as an adult when Jacob moved to NC circa 1767. But Jacob is NOT just the SON of the Frederich Ernich on the boat, he IS that Frederich Ernich! His full name was perhaps "Frederich Jacob Ernich", but after the boat trip he always went by the name Jacob, to avoid being confused with his father. There is precedent for this in the family: Jacob himself had a son Johann Heinrich Arney, who forever was known as "Henry". THEORY FLAWS: When the original immigrant Frederich died in 1771, his will named a son Jacob, whom we now know is NOT the Jacob from York County. Surely he wouldn't name TWO of his sons "Jacob"? (Or maybe he would, if for some reason he disowned his first son?)
THEORY (3): Similar to Theory (2), except the presumed "Frederich 'Jacob' Ernich" from the boat is not the SON of Frederich Ernigh, the family head from the 1732 immigration. Perhaps he was a NEPHEW, travelling to the new world with his uncle? Or even a younger BROTHER? That avoids the "double Jacob" naming problem?
THEORY (4): The York County Arneys (Jacob and Daniel) were not part of the 1732 boat arrival, but arrived separately. They could be either brothers, or father/son. Note this does not preclude them being RELATED to the 1732 immigrant "Frederich Ernigh", they just arrived separately but have a common ancestor back in Germany. THEORY FLAWS: We have not found a separate immigration record. But then I suspect the colony borders in the 1700's were at least as porous as our borders today?
APPENDIX II – The DNA Test:
Two individuals descending from Jacob Arney (York County), my own branch, have already been tested. We have also had discussion with a descendant of the Daniel Erney found in York County, and he is invited to become the third. I think he I highly likely to match the other "York" Arneys.
The test is on the y-chromosome, which is found only in males, and which is handed down with minimal changes from father to son, in the same way that the surname is handed down. Thus the tested men must be named "Arney" (or some spelling variation).
We have identified two branches of the "Frederich Ernigh" descendants with living Erney or Arney male descendants. One from the "Lehigh County Pennsylvania Branch", and one from the Fairfield County Ohio Branch". We hope that one or both of these will yield individuals willing to test.
If one or both of these match the "York" Arneys, then we have a convincing case that the families are clearly connected.
However if there is NOT a match on a single test, then I would not give up until I see a SECOND test on an entirely different branch. For example, if the match is negative for the "Lehigh County PA" line, I would want to also see a test on the "Fairfield County OH" line or some other. If "Lehigh" and "Fairfield" match each other, but do not match "York", then I will conclude that the York Arneys are totally unrelated.
(The reason for wanting two tests for a negative result, is because experience shows (e.g. for the "Coffey" families), that outside DNA sometimes finds its way into a family line!)